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Cũ 01-21-2008, 04:14 PM   #1
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Default Evm Seminar Report

Dear Lady and Gentlemen,


At first, I would like to personally express my sincere thanks to ALL of you to create good condition during the seminars. The EVM method will be surely applied in project management sooner or later in order to control the project cost, time and scope properly in stead of traditional method in Vietnam.

The earned value project management method is a power tool that supports the management of project scope, time and cost. It allows the calculation of cost and schedule at completion. It provides early indications of expected project results based on project performance and highlights the possible need for corrective action. As such, it allows the project manager and project team to adjust project strategy and to make trade-offs based on the project objectives, actual project performance, and trends, as well the environment in which the project is being conducted.

The method uses cost and value as the common measures of project performance for both cost and schedule parameters. It allows the measurement of cost and value in dollars, hours, worker days, or any other similar unit.

This report shows the major aspects of the earned value method, presents graphical tools that enhance its effectiveness, and provides useful simplifications and logical extensions of this important project management method.

Hopely we can apply the excellent EVM method in our services soonest. There may be a future opportunity for cooperation between us and Ph.D. Nghi specifically to raise EVM standards throughout the development in Vietnam.

Thanks and best regards



Duong Quang

Air, vietcons.com
Nguồn: www.diendanxaydung.vn
__________________
Luong Thi Ngoc Ha (Ms.)
Smarthome & Sale Manager

VIET CONSTRUCTION CONSULTANCY CO., LTD
"Enhancing Core Value Together"
Address: 110 Cao Thang, Ward 4, Dist 3, HCMC, VN
Mobile: 0935 83 83 80 - Office: 028 2222 6668
E-mail : ha.luongngoc@vietcons.vn - www.vietcons.vn

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Cũ 01-21-2008, 04:41 PM   #2
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INTRODUCTION TO EARNED VALUE MANANAGEMENT


MANAGEMENT CRITERIA VS ENGINEERING CRITERIA
Management Criteria
Objective: Provide an effective management system used for planning and control the physical development of a project.
Specification: Allowing for control of the project by developing valid, lear standards.
Managing by exception to those standards so as to provide timely information and respond quickly to project changes, provide reliable technical, cost/schedule information to higher management for decision makings.
Output: An effective management planning and control system satisfying the project requirements.

Engineering Criteria
Objective: Build an engineering facility
Specification: Length, Width, Reliability, Maintainability, Capacity, Speed, Output, Control Mechanism ..etc..
Output: An engineering facility built to specifications and serves the stakeholders’ intended purposes.

EVOLUTION OF THE EARNED VALUE MANAGEMENT (EVM) CONCEPT
· Late 1880s: American industrial engineers’ earned standards actually achieved against actual expenses incurred to measure performance in their factories
· 1959 - 1966: PERT/Cost (Polaris, Minuteman.. projects)
· 1967 - 1996: Cost/Schedule Control System Criteria (C/SCSC)
· 1967: Department of Defense (DoD) C/SCSC
· 1971: NASA Handbook – Contractor Reporting
· 1979: Department of Energy (DoE) C/SCSC
· 1996: International performance management standards
· 1996 – Present: EVM ( ANSI/EIA 748)
· The thirty-two EVMS criteria incorporated into DoD Instruction 5000.2R in 1997:
§ Formally issued as an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) document.
§ Formally issued as an Electronic Industry Association (EIA) standard.
· July 1998: ANSI/EIA 748 Earned Value Guide was officially issued.

THE COST/SCHEDULE CONTROL SYSTEM CRITERIA ( C/SCSC)
C/SCSC:A set of DoD criteria designed to define an adequate contractor’s cost/schedule management control system. “Earned Value” concept was part of the C/SCSC.
Objective:
· Provide an accurate and realistic reflection of the integrated scope, cost and schedule parameters of a project to assist management in the decision making process.

· Stress the need in implementing an effective internal management control system to meet client’s contractual requirements.
Five important basic data elements must be determined and planned for objective evaluation of project progress and performance in C/SCSC:

· Budgeted Cost for Work Scheduled (BCWS): The time-phase budget plan applicable to the work scheduled to be accomplished within a given timeframe against which performance is measure (Planned Value).
· Budgeted Cost for Work Performed (BCWP): The budgeted cost for all work actually accomplished during a given time period (Earned Value).
· Actual Cost for Work Performed (ACWP): The cost actually incurred and recorded in accomplishing the work performed within a particular time period (Actual Costs).
· Budget At Completion (BAC): The sum of all budgets allocated to all contract’s authorized WBS elements.
· Estimate At Completion (EAC): The cost allocated to the work to date plus the estimate of cost for authorized work remaining.

The C/SCSC is the pre-EVM era Earned Value approach for project performance measurement!


Nguồn: www.diendanxaydung.vn
__________________
Luong Thi Ngoc Ha (Ms.)
Smarthome & Sale Manager

VIET CONSTRUCTION CONSULTANCY CO., LTD
"Enhancing Core Value Together"
Address: 110 Cao Thang, Ward 4, Dist 3, HCMC, VN
Mobile: 0935 83 83 80 - Office: 028 2222 6668
E-mail : ha.luongngoc@vietcons.vn - www.vietcons.vn
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Cũ 01-21-2008, 04:47 PM   #3
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THE INDUSTRY EVM SYSTEM CRITERIA REQUIREMENTS
· ORGANIZATION:
- Define contractual effort and assign work
· PLANNING, SCHEDULING & BUDGETING
- Plan, schedule, budget and authorize the responsibilities for the work
· ACCOUNTING CONSIDERATIONS:
- Accumulate costs of work and material
· ANALYSIS & MANAGEMENT REPORTS:
- Compare planned versus actual costs
- Analyze variances
- Develop estimates of final costs
- Report for management
· REVISIONS & DATA MAINTENANCE : Incorporate changes
· EVM System Criteria reflected by ANSI/EIA Standard 748.
· ANSI/EIA 748 supersedes the C/SCSC.

PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT: AN EFFECTIVE EVM TECHNIQUE
· Performance measurement is a project planning and cost control system that goes beyond the traditional concept of comparing the amount of project time elapsed against the amount of actual money spent. It incorporates earned value methods into the project management principles of:
Ø Planning
Ø Organizing
Ø Monitoring
Ø Controlling
Ø Reporting
Ø Closing
· It gives project managers greater ”visibility” into the status of work schedule, accomplishment and cost.


EVM IN PROJECT MANAGEMENT

· Realistic relationship of Cost, Schedule and Technical Scope/Quality accomplishment.

· Proper indication of work progress, trends, emerging problems.

· Valid, timely and auditable project performance data.

· Provide contractors/clients management with information at an appropriate level of summarization.

· Data extracted from the same project management system used to manage the work.

· Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

· Organizational Breakdown Structure (OBS)

· Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)

· Control Account Plan (CAP)

· A Formal Scheduling System

· Performance Measurement Baseline ( PMB)


EVM PRINCIPLES

The Earned Value Management concept is based on the measurement of the budgeted value of the work actually carried out and its comparison with the budgeted value of the work that should have been carried out….. what it actually costs

EVM BASIC CONCEPTS
· Plan the entire contractual effort
· Determine accomplishment at level where work is done
· Measure accomplishment objectively
· Summarize for higher levels
· Analyze variances and forecast impact

EVM system must produce these data:
· Planned Value (PV) for work scheduled to be performed
· Earned Value (EV) for work performed
· Actual Costs (AC) for work performed
· Authorized Budget At Completion (BAC)
· Estimate At Completion (EAC)
· Cost and Schedule Variances (CV and SV)

EVM SIMPLE EXAMPLE
Assume a schedule completion of one unit per month at a budgeted cost of $ 100 per unit. At the end of six months, $ 560 in costs have been incurred, but the equivalent of only five units have been completed.

Under the typical, traditional budget performance control approach, the project is $ 40 under budget (600-560) and one month behind schedule.

In the Earned Value Management approach, the project status would be as follows:

Earned Value = $ 500
Planned Value = $ 600
Actual Costs = $ 560
Cost Variance = Earned Value – Actual Costs = $ 500 - 560 = - $ 60
Schedule Variance = Earned Value – Planned Value = $ 500 – 600 = - $ 100

This means the project is really $60 OVERRUN and $100 (or one month)
BEHIND SCHEDULE



Nguồn: www.diendanxaydung.vn
__________________
Luong Thi Ngoc Ha (Ms.)
Smarthome & Sale Manager

VIET CONSTRUCTION CONSULTANCY CO., LTD
"Enhancing Core Value Together"
Address: 110 Cao Thang, Ward 4, Dist 3, HCMC, VN
Mobile: 0935 83 83 80 - Office: 028 2222 6668
E-mail : ha.luongngoc@vietcons.vn - www.vietcons.vn

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Cũ 01-21-2008, 04:52 PM   #4
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TYPICAL PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT METHODS IN EVM

· Weighted Milestones

· Fixed Formula by Task

· Percent Complete Estimates

· Percent Complete Estimates + Gates Milestones

· Equivalent Completed Units

· Earned Standards

· Apportioned Value

· Level Of Effort (LoE)



Earned Value Progress Determination Guideline




“IMPACT” TO INCORPORATE PROJECT CHANGES


CAPs PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT :

· The total project baseline is the sum of all the CAPs’ baselines.

· Each CAP must have a defined workscope reflected by different tasks, a timeframe to finish each task and an authorized budget to accomplish these tasks.

· These tasks represent the Work Packages in a CAP.

· A WP is a specific activity which contributes to a clearly defined specific task of accomplishment towards the overall project’s objectives, e.g., “definitive” cost estimate.

· Performance measurement data will be collected at the WP level and summed upward through the hierarchy of the WBS and the project organizational structure.

· The value of work performed in a particular period for each WP is compared to its Planned Value established for the same period.

· Guidelines and instructions for deriving EV, under each approved EV method, are issued to project staff as part of the performance measurement plan.

· The Planned Value, EV, actual costs and the approved budget will provide the CAM with mechanism to calculate the WPs and CAPs’ current statuses and, hence, the current project status and its future trend.



Nguồn: www.diendanxaydung.vn
__________________
Luong Thi Ngoc Ha (Ms.)
Smarthome & Sale Manager

VIET CONSTRUCTION CONSULTANCY CO., LTD
"Enhancing Core Value Together"
Address: 110 Cao Thang, Ward 4, Dist 3, HCMC, VN
Mobile: 0935 83 83 80 - Office: 028 2222 6668
E-mail : ha.luongngoc@vietcons.vn - www.vietcons.vn

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Cũ 01-21-2008, 04:57 PM   #5
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PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

WHY? To determine if the integrated Cost/Schedule performance is deviating from baseline plans.
HOW? By assessing progress in terms of:
· Milestones completion
· Difference between estimated cost at completion and the authorized budget ( EAC – BAC)
· Cost Variance (CV) = Earned Value – Actual Cost = EV - AC
· Schedule Variance (SV) = Earned Value – Planned Value = EV - PV
· Performance measurement is the result of comparing and analyzing actual cost/schedule progress with baseline plans
· Cost and schedule variance values are key indicators of performance for:
Ø Current period
Ø Cumulative to Date
Ø At Completion

EV COST AND SCHEDULE VARIANCES
· Cost Variance (CV) = EV – Actual Costs
· Schedule Variance (SV) = EV – Planned Value
Negative variance indicates an unfavourable situation, i.e., cost overrun or schedule
slippage !
CV % = CV/EV
SV % = SV/EV
· Cost Performance Index (CPI) = EV / Actual Costs
· Schedule Performance Index (SPI) = EV / Planned Value
Performance Indices indicate the “efficiency” with which work as been accomplished !


“ TO GO “ CPI and “ TO COMPLETE “ CPI
Ø “ TO GO “ CPI = Work Remaining/ Resources Remaining
= (BAC – EV cum)/ ( BAC–AC cum)

where BAC is the Budget At Completion
AC cum is the Actual Costs incurred to date
EV cum is the Earned Value to date

Ø An assessment of the degree of cost efficiency which must be achieved in order to complete the work being measured ,e.g., Contract, WBS element, CAP, WP within the existing budget (BAC).

Ø A comparison of the budget for the remaining work with the “remaining money”.
Ø TO COMPLETE “ CPI = Work Remaining/ ETC
= BAC – EV cum/ EAC- AC cum

where EAC is the “Estimate At Completion” costs

Ø A comparison of the budget for the work remaining to the Estimate To Complete (ETC) for that work

Ø Measurement of the cost efficiency at which the contractor must perform to meet his EAC rather than the budget (BAC) for the “ TO GO “ CPI.


MATERIALS AND SUBCONTRACTS IN EVM
· How to measure the performance of procured items?

· Procured items resulting from a Purchase Order (PO), a contract or subcontract.

· Issues: Accounting commitment for materials; placement of actual order for materials; receipt of the materials, ultimate consumption of materials, subsequent payment to the supplier may well all take place in different time periods.

· How to measure EV performance when the Planned Value, EV and Actual Costs occur in different time frames!


To “Match” EV Measurement:
· Actual costs may need to be reduced:
o for advanced payments made without work performed
o for materials held in inventory with no work performed

· Actual costs may need to be increased:
o for supplier retainage or holdback for work performed
o for supplier work performed without payments made for lagging costs for work performed ( late invoices, etc.)


Nguồn: www.diendanxaydung.vn
__________________
Luong Thi Ngoc Ha (Ms.)
Smarthome & Sale Manager

VIET CONSTRUCTION CONSULTANCY CO., LTD
"Enhancing Core Value Together"
Address: 110 Cao Thang, Ward 4, Dist 3, HCMC, VN
Mobile: 0935 83 83 80 - Office: 028 2222 6668
E-mail : ha.luongngoc@vietcons.vn - www.vietcons.vn

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Cũ 01-21-2008, 05:04 PM   #6
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SUBCONTRACTOR PERFORMANCE MEASUREMENT

· Subcontractors use appropriate procedures for the planning, control & status reporting of the “integrated” Scope, Cost and Schedule parameters of their contract commitments consistent with the prime contract requirements.
· Subcontractor efforts are adequately identified and performances accurately measured and reported on a regular and required basis for quick integration into the prime contract.

COST AND SCHEDULE RESULTS METHODOLOGY
EVM provides excellent, “statistically” forecast of the “probable” final cost, and schedule results on any project from as early as the 15% completion point.

· Schedule Performance:
Ø Actual performance against the planned schedule ,.i.e, physical accomplishment of the work scheduled.
Ø Has the project accomplished what it planned to do within a specified time frame?
Ø SPI reflects schedule performance efficiency, helps forecasting actual trends.
Ø Actual EV schedule trends to be verified and validated by using formal scheduling system and its critical path analysis.

· Cost Performance:
Ø Establish the ETCs (Estimates To Complete) by determining the value of the Work Remaining (WR),i.e., budgeted value for the uncompleted tasks, expressed as the Budget At Completion (BAC) less the EV already accomplished; then divide the WR by performance efficiency factors (CPI,SPI..).
Ø Forecast a range of final Estimated Cost At Completion (EAC) by taking the total actual costs incurred to date plus the ETC.

· Estimates To Complete (ETCs): Bottom Up & Routine
Ø Based on performance to date + “Forecast of future conditions”
Ø Actuals to date + ETC = EAC ( Estimate At Completion)
Ø Used to measure cost variance at completion (EAC-BAC) = EACV (EAC Variance)
Ø Development/Maintenance of ETCs is a major CAM responsibility !


MANAGEMENT RESERVE (MR) OR CONTINGENCY RESERVE(CR)
· Decision on how to use MR or CR funds is to be made by the Project Manager in terms of the EAC:
Ø The final EAC forecast can be reduced by the full value of the remaining MR or CR funds, assuming the funds will not be consumed.
Ø The remaining MR or CR can be divided by some negative performance efficiency factor ,e.g., CPI or CPI x SPI, increasing the final projected EAC.
Ø The MR or CR can be added to the calculated EAC at its full value, assuming that these funds will be consumed.

· Generation of the EAC:
Ø Good reflection of actual performance to date and a rational prediction of future project cost.
Ø The EAC is associated with a bottom-up calculation of the remaining work where the estimate is a function of the predicted costs for the specific tasks required to complete the project work.
Ø There is no quantitative method or technique to forecast perfectly the EAC as a result of unknown variables affecting future costs!

Numerous techniques are being used to predict the EAC, many are based on performance indices derived from values of past project performances. The most frequently used methods are:
EAC = BAC/PF
or EAC = Actual Costs cum + (BAC – EV cum)/ PF where
PF (Performance Factor) = CPI
Use with caution: Assumes same level of efficiency as past performance!

Ø The “floating average” technique for EAC calculation:
EAC = Actual costs cum + (BAC – EV cum) / CPI* n
CPI*n = (CPI n + CPI n-1 +…….CPI 1)/ n
where n = Number of months !
Ø The “most accurate” formula:
EAC = AC cum + BR / ( (.2xSPI cum) + (.8x CPI cum))
where AC is the Actual Costs
BR = Budget Remained = BAC – EV cum

EVM REPORTING

PREPARING & INTERPRETING THE INTEGRATED COST/SCHEDULE REPORT
  • Conventional project status reports usually consist of separate reports on cost and schedule including forecasts of cost and schedule at the completion of the project.
  • Integrated cost/schedule report provides an “objective” measurement of the cost and schedule status of the project at each reporting period from the start of the project.
  • An integrated cost/schedule reporting system is a “practical” and effective tool for forecasting future performance and completion costs after sufficient reporting periods have established performance trends!
  • For purchased equipment items, materials and commodities which are usually detailed to unit levels, printed Cost/Schedule Status reports are completely satisfactory for accurately describing the project status.
  • For labour intensive activities such as engineering and field construction, it is highly recommended that graphical reports be used to supplement the printed status reports.
No project manager wants to have to search through stacks of printed reports to find relevant information on project status !

FORMAT A
THE EVM REPORTING



Format D
Summary Master Schedule (SMS) Status





Format E – Network :



Nguồn: www.diendanxaydung.vn
__________________
Luong Thi Ngoc Ha (Ms.)
Smarthome & Sale Manager

VIET CONSTRUCTION CONSULTANCY CO., LTD
"Enhancing Core Value Together"
Address: 110 Cao Thang, Ward 4, Dist 3, HCMC, VN
Mobile: 0935 83 83 80 - Office: 028 2222 6668
E-mail : ha.luongngoc@vietcons.vn - www.vietcons.vn

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